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高中英语构词法大全,帮你回忆更多单词!

作者:admin 发布时间:2019-08-12 19:33:31 浏览次数:160
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颜教师说:学习构词法基础知识对错常有优点的,它能让咱们可以轻松知道更多单词,以一种奇妙的办法扩展词汇量,短期内记住更多的单词,来一起来学习构词法的基础知识吧!

英语中的构词法主要有三种

即转化法、组成法和派生法

一. 转化法

在英语中,一个单词由一种词性转化为另一种或几种词性而词形不变的办法叫做转化法。

1. 动词转化为名词

●Let me have a try.

让我试试。

●They are only allowed to sell soft drinksat school.

在校园里只允许他们出售不含酒精的饮料。

2. 名词转化为动词

●He shoulderedhis way through the crowd.

他用膀子推开人群行进。

高中英语构词法大全,帮你回忆更多单词!

●The smell from the kitchen made his mouth water.

从厨房传来的气味使他流口水。

3. 形容词转化为动词

●We will try our best to betterour living conditions.

咱们要极力改进咱们的日子状况。

●They tried to perfectthe working conditions.

他们尽力改进工作条件。

4. 形容词转化为名词

●He didn’t know the difference between rightand wrong.

他不辨对错。

●The oldin our village are living a happy life.

咱们村的老年人过着美好的日子。

5. 形容词转化为副词

●How longhave you lived there?

你在那儿住多久了?

6. 单个词在必定场合中可转化为名词

●Warm clothes are a mustin the mountains.

穿温暖的衣服到山区去是有必要的。

●Life is full of upsand downs.

人生有满意时也有失落时。

●His argument contains too many ifsand buts.

他的争辩中含有太多的“假如”和“可是”。

二. 组成法

由两个或两个以上的单词连在一起组成一个新词,这种构词法叫做组成法,组成的词叫做组成词。组成词一般看其词,知其意。

1. 组成名词

●名词/代词+名词 newspaper blood-test she-wolf

●动词+名词 typewriter pickpocket daybreak

●形容词+名词 greenhouse highway

●副词+名词 overcoat outside

●名词+v.-ing/v.-ing +名词 handwriting reading-room freezing-point

●动词+副词/ 副词+ 动词 breakthrough get-together outbreak outcome

●名词+介词+名词 sister-in-law editor-in-chief

2. 组成形容词

●名词+形容词/形容词+名词 world-famous duty-free large-scale long- term

●副词+形容词 over-anxious evergreen

●名词+过去分词 man-made sun-burnt

●名词+现在分词 peace-loving English-speaking

●形容词+现在分词 good-looking easy-going

●副词+过去分词 well-informed widespread

●副词+现在分词 hardworking far-reaching

●形容词+名词+ed warm-hearted absent-minded

●数词+名词+ed three-legged ten-storied

●数词+名词 one-way five–star

●数词+名词+形容词 ten-year-old 800-meter-long

●名词+to+名词 face –to-face door - to -door

3. 组成动词

●名词+动词 baby-sit sleepwalk

●副词+动词 outnumber underestimate o高中英语构词法大全,帮你回忆更多单词!verwork

●形容词+动词 whitewash

4. 组成副词

●形容词+名词 meanwhile anyway

●形容词+副词 everywhere anyhow

●副词+副词 however

●介词+名词 beforehand overhead

●介词+副词 forever

5. 组成代词

●代词宾格+self/selves herself themselves

●物主代词+self/selves myself yourselves

●形容词+名词 anything nothing

6. 组成介词

●副词+名词 insid高中英语构词法大全,帮你回忆更多单词!e outside

●介词+副词 without within

●副词+介词 into

三. 派生法

由一个词加上前缀或后缀构成一个与原单词含义附近或截然相反的新词叫做派生法。

1. 前缀

除少数前缀外,前缀一般改动单词的含义,但不改动单词的高中英语构词法大全,帮你回忆更多单词!词性。

(1)表明否定含义的前缀

●un- unhappy unfinished undress

●dis- disagree disbelieve

●in- [il-(在字母l前),im- (在字母m,b,p前),ir- (在字母r前)] inaccurate illegal impolite imbalance irregular

●mis- misbehave mislead mistake

●non- nonstop nonsmoker

(2)表明其他含义的前缀

●en- “使……”enrich enlarge encourage

●inter- “彼此”international intercontinental

●re- “再,苏婧荣西决免费阅读又,重”rethink retell recycle

●tele- “长途的”telescope telephone telegraph

●auto- “主动的”automatic automobile

●co- “一起”coworker cooperate coexist

●anti- “对立,反抗”antiwar antifreeze antinuclear

●multi- “多”multistory multicultural multicolor

●bi- “双,二”bicycle bilingual bilateral

●micro- “极小的,细小的”microwave microcomputer

●over- “太多,过火”overwork overdo overestimate

●self- “自己,自身”self-centered self-confident self-control

●under- “在……下面,……下的,缺乏的”underline, underground, underestimate, underrate

2. 后缀

(1)形容词后缀

●-able“可……的,具有……的”acceptable drinkable knowledgeable reasonable

●-al“与……有关的”physical, magical, political

●-an“归于某当地的人”American African

●-ern“方向”southern, northern, eastern

●-ful/ less“(没)有……的”helpful, useful, homele高中英语构词法大全,帮你回忆更多单词!ss, hopeless

●-ish“如……的;有……特征的”foolish childish selfish

●-ive“有……倾向的”active attractive expensive

●-en“由……制成的”golden wooden woolen

●-ous“有(性质)的”famous, dangerous, poisonous

●-ly“有……性质的”friendly yearly daily

●-y“构成形容词”noisy dusty cloudy

(2)名词后缀

●-er / or“表人或用具” farmer, baker, visitor, professor, cooker, container

●-ese “某国(人)的”Chinese, Japanese

●-ian“某国、某地人;通晓……的人”musician, Asian, Russian, technician

●-ist “某种主义或职业者”physicist, scientist, communist,socialist

●-ess “表女人,雌性”hostess, actress, princess

●-ment“行为或其状况”government, movement, achievement

●-ness“性质,状况”illness, sadness, carelessness

●-tion“动作,进程,成果”invention, organization, translation

●-ance/ ence“笼统;行为、性质、状况”importance, appearance, absence, existence

●-th“性质、状况” depth, warmth, truth

●-ful“(满的)量”handful, spoonful, mouthful

●-(a)bility“笼统、性质、状况”possibility, disability, reliability

●-al“进程、状况”survival, arrival, approval

●-y“性质、状况”高中英语构词法大全,帮你回忆更多单词!modesty, delivery, honesty

●-dom“处于……状况;性质”freedom, boredom

●-age“状况,行为,身份及其成果”courage, storage, marriage

(3)动词后缀

●-fy / ify “使得;变得” simplify, beautify, purify

●-en“使成为;变得” shorten, deepen, sadden

●-ize“使成为” apologize, realize, specialize

(4)副词后缀

●-ly“办法,程度” freely, truly, angrily

●-ward(s) “向……” towards, forward, upwards

(5)数词后缀

●-teen“十几” fourteen, eighteen, thirteen

●-ty“整十位数” forty, fifty, sixty

●-th “序数词” twelfth, twentieth

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